Flooding is an annual phenomenon in the Nyando River catchment, wiping out decades of development gains. Presently, there is no flood-related policy on land use in the floodplains in the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria Basin. In order to make efficient flood management and reduce flood risk, it is not enough to know if, when, or even where a flood will strike. We need to know where our vulnerabilities are (NOAA, 1999). This book highlights the dimensions and spatial distribution of vulnerabilities to flooding in the catchment and to areas with similar rural populations. Based on flood hazard, vulnerability and risk studies, the book provides the Kenyan Government, flood managers, local communities and other stakeholders with strategies and a basis for vulnerability reduction including linking flood management to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals under the “living with the rivers” concept.