In this thesis, the impact of plasma treatment on the surface characteristics of wood and wood-based products has been investigated. For this, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used. The plasma treatments were conducted at atmospheric pressure using ambient air as process gas. Beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus spec.), spruce (Picea abies) and Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga menziesii), as heat treatment modified beech and wood-based products, particle board, fibre board and wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been plasma-treated in order to evaluate the impact on surface characteristics, the effectiveness and possible applications. To examine this, surface properties such as wetting characteristics, surface energy and work of adhesion (WoA) have been determined by means of contact angle measurements. Furthermore, surface topography has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and adhesion properties by several testing methods of adhesives and paints.